Microplastics Have Invaded The Deep Ocean — And The Food Chain

“We found that most of the plastic is below the surface.” More, he says, than in the giant floating patches.

And also to their surprise, they found that submerged microplastics are widely distributed, from the surface to thousands of feet deep.

Moreover, the farther from shore they sampled, the more microplastics they found. That suggests it’s not just washing off the California coast. It’s coming from all over.

…The deep ocean is filled with sea creatures like larvaceans that filter tiny organisms out of the water. …”We found small plastic pieces in every single larvacean that we examined from different depths across the water column,” Choy says. Another filter feeder, the red crab, also contained plastic pieces — every one they caught.

…”Anything that humans introduce to that habitat is passing through these animals and being incorporated into the food web” — a web that leads up to marine animals people eat.

Microplastics Have Invaded The Deep Ocean — And The Food Chain : The Salt : NPR



‘Major distraction’: school dumps iPads, returns to paper textbooks

[A] Sydney school has declared the e-book era over and returned to the old-fashioned hard copy version because it improves comprehension and reduces distraction.

…”[Students] have messages popping up and all sorts of other alerts,” said Mr Pitcairn. “Also, kids being kids, they could jump between screens quite easily, so would look awfully busy and not be busy at all.”

…Teachers also found the iPads …did not contribute to students’ technology skills.

…”The ease of navigation through the textbook was easier with the hard copy. …They learn better the more faculties they use, the more senses they use in research and reading and making notes.”

…Research into [the preference for] hard-copy textbooks “points to greater perceived comfort, comprehension, and also retention of what’s been read,” she said. “Some have found that there’s less immersive involvement [in digital text].”

…When students were asked about the general themes of a text, …the printed version made them better able to answer specific questions.

The study’s authors suggested print be preferred when an assignment demands more engagement or deeper comprehension.

‘Major distraction’: school dumps iPads, returns to paper textbooks