A Mother Learns the Identity of Her Child’s Grandmother. A Sperm Bank Threatens to Sue.

A Mother Learns the Identity of Her Child’s Grandmother. A Sperm Bank Threatens to Sue. – The New York Times

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Year in space put US astronaut’s immune system on high alert compared to his Earth-bound twin

Nearly a year in space put astronaut Scott Kelly’s immune system on high alert and changed the activity of some of his genes compared to his Earth-bound identical twin, researchers said Friday.

…’I’ve never felt completely normal in space,’ the now-retired Kelly said in an email to The Associated Press, citing the usual congestion from shifting fluid, headaches and difficulty concentrating from extra carbon dioxide, and digestive complaints from microgravity.

…A number of genes connected to the immune system became hyperactive, Mason said. It’s not a change in DNA but in what’s called ‘gene expression,’ how genes turn off and on and increase or decrease their production of proteins. 

Mason also spotted a spike in the bloodstream of another marker that primes the immune system. Yet at the same time, Kelly’s blood showed fewer of another cell type that’s an early defense against viruses.

…Most everything returned to normal shortly after Kelly got back on Earth in March 2016. Those immune-related genes, however, ‘seemed to have this memory or this need to almost be on high alert’ even six months later, Mason said.

…Immune issues sound familiar to Dr. Jerry Linenger, an American astronaut who spent more than four months on the Russian space station Mir. He said he was never sick in orbit, but once he came back to Earth ‘I was probably more sick than I was in my life.’

Astronauts launch into orbit with their own germs and get exposed to their crewmates’ germs and then after a week with nothing else new in the ‘very sterile environment’ of a space station ‘your immune system is really not challenged,’ Linenger said.

Year in space put US astronaut’s immune system on high alert compared to his Earth-bound twin | Daily Mail Online

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