Da Vinci’s Forgotten Design for the Longest Bridge in the World

In the early 16th century, da Vinci designed a lesser-known structure: a bridge for the Ottoman Empire that would have been the longest bridge of its time.

…The group built a replica of the bridge, after taking into consideration the materials and construction equipment available 500 years ago and the geological conditions of the Golden Horn,  a freshwater estuary in the Bosphorus Sea over which the bridge would’ve been built.

…The only material available at the time, that wouldn’t have collapsed under large loads on such a long bridge, would have been stone. …The researchers also hypothesized that such a bridge would have stood on its own without any paste or material to hold the stone together.

…The da Vinci bridge …would have been the longest of its time.

…Most bridge supports at the time were designed as a semicircular arch and would have required 10 or more piers to support that length of bridge, according to the statement. But da Vinci’s design was a single arch, flattened at the top, that would have been tall enough to allow sailboats to pass underneath. 

…Da Vinci’s design and the MIT scientists’ model also included structures called abutments that extended outward on both sides of the ends of the bridge to stabilize it against side-to-side movements, likely because da Vinci knew the region was prone to earthquakes. 

Da Vinci’s Forgotten Design for the Longest Bridge in the World Proves What a Genius He Was | Live Science



Fructose worsens the effect of high fat diets

“Fructose makes the liver accumulate fat,” says senior study author C. Ronald Kahn, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA. “It acts almost like adding more fat to the diet,” he continues.

“This contrasts the effect of adding more glucose to the diet, which promotes the liver’s ability to burn fat, and, therefore, actually makes for a healthier metabolism,” he adds.

Is this how fructose worsens the effect of high fat diets?


Ancient ‘New York’: 5,000-year-old city discovered in Israel

Known as En Esur, the site spans 650 dunams (161 acres), about double the size of previous similar findings. The design of the city included designated residential and public areas, streets and alleys, the Israel Antiquities Authority said.

About four million fragments were found at the site, including rare figurines of humans and animals, pieces of pottery and various tools, some of which came from Egypt.

…An even earlier settlement, believed to be 7,000 years old, was discovered beneath the city.

Ancient ‘New York’: 5,000-year-old city discovered in Israel – BBC News


Israel cave bones: Early humans ‘conserved food to eat later’ – BBC News

Scientists in Israel say they have found evidence that early humans deliberately stored bones from animals to eat the fatty marrow later.

It is the earliest evidence that humans living between 200,000 and 420,000 years ago had the foresight to anticipate future needs, they say.

Early humans had not previously been thought capable of such dietary planning.

Israel cave bones: Early humans ‘conserved food to eat later’ – BBC News

It’s staggering how little credit we give our ancestors for possessing the social and intellectual tools to survive, especially in light of the fact that if they hadn’t survived we wouldn’t be here.

Archaeology! Reminding us that modern man is too stupid to see intelligence in its own history…

STDs on the rise: Cases of 3 common infections reach all-time highs in the US

For instance, results from the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, published last year by the CDC, found that among sexually active high school students, the prevalence of using a condom during a recent sexual experience increased from 46.2% to 62.8% between 1991 and 2005 but then decreased from 62.8% to 53.8% between 2005 and 2017.

…”We have an STD crisis in the US because prevention programs were sold short for years,” David Harvey, executive director of the National Coalition of STD Directors, said in the statement.

“Our first line of defense is underfunded and overwhelmed, leaving Americans vulnerable to STD outbreaks, and that’s exactly what we’re seeing,” he said. “STDs have real health and human costs. Babies dying from preventable conditions, like congenital syphilis, is not an outcome we can accept. This is a heartbreaking symptom of our nation’s STD crisis. Without a radical shift in how we prioritize sexual health in the United States, we can only expect things to get worse.”

STDs on the rise: Cases of 3 common infections reach all-time highs in the US – CNN