Iberia’s population has changed drastically over time, from its hunter-gatherer origins before the arrival of farming 7,500 years ago, through to the medieval period and modern times.
…An influx of new people during the later Copper Age. …By the Early Bronze Age, 500 years later, these newcomers represented about 40% of Iberia’s genetic pool – but virtually 100% of their male lineages.
…The same shift was not observed for women whose DNA remained relatively ‘local.’
…’We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by 2500 BC and, by 2000 BC, the replacement of 40% of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry.’
What is even more striking now is that both Iberia and India had a similar source – a population of early metal-using stock breeders, who lived to the north of the Black Sea on Russian steppe lands, 5,000 years ago.
They fanned out in both directions, west across Europe and east into Asia, their based economy, domesticated horses and wheeled wagons giving them a crucial advantage over the indigenous farming populations.
Moreover, they are also thought to have brought the Indo-European languages spoken across Europe and India today.
Around 2,500 BC, the researchers found, Iberians began living alongside newcomers from central Europe who carried recent ancestry from those people on the Russian steppe.
…’Resolving the population dynamics in western Europe during the Copper and Bronze Ages is a big step towards understanding the origins of the Celtic languages, which were spoken across western Europe before the rise of the Roman Empire.’
A little surprised the article did not include any known corresponding social/political history. It seems there is a hypothesis to be drawn between the disappearance of a male population and a sustained pattern of invasion and colonization that almost merits mentioning here.